Construction Phase

Types of Construction Delivery

In Canada, there are three specific methods of Construction Delivery as follows:

  • Design-Bid-Build (Stipulated Price Contract)
  • Construction Management (CM)
  • Design-Build (DB)

The following chart offers a description and the potential advantages and disadvantages of each method.

Method (fee) Description Advantages/Challenges
Design-Bid-Build
(Stipulated Price Contract)

This is the most traditional method of engaging an architect.

  • The client engages an Architect to prepare design, drawings and specifications
  • The Architect works on behalf of the client directly with selected contractor to manage the build from start to finish
  • One centralized professional managing the project – the Architect, working on your behalf.
  • Most common approach, therefore industry professionals are familiar with it
  • Program requirements and design ar eall identified and resolved prior to construction.
  • Known price before construction begins, since all parties are contracted.
Construction Management (CM)

This approach is commonly used on more complex projects.

  • The client engages an Architect to prepare design, drawings and specifications documents.
  • The client hires (or has in-house) a construction manager to oversee the administration and management of project.
  • Separation of design and construction can reduce communication and potential challenges.
  • Client is responsible for construction including safety.
  • Construction often begins before total costs are known.
  • Most common approach, therefore industry professionals are familiar with it
  • Program requirements and design are all identified and resolved prior to construction.
Design-Build (DB)

In this approach the client contracts directly with a contractor for construction and the relationship is between the contractor and the architect.

  • The client does not engage an Architect directly for the design but may engage an “advocate” Architect for initial advice.
  • The client and architect have less control since the contractor leads the build.
  • The program requirements and design are all identified and resolved prior to construction.

What are the Client’s responsibilities?

Tender
The Client issues the Construction or Tender Documents, which include drawings and specifications, for contractors to review and base their tender bid(estimates for the cost of construction). The documents can be issued through Government websites, newspapers, construction association information technology sites, etc.

Once the Tender closes and all bids have been received, the Client selects the successful bidder – often the lowest bidder.

The Architect will then coordinate with the successful bidder to construct the project. At this stage, the Owner is typically responsible for reviewing the information presented and providing feedback and/or approval of the information, as well as coordinating with necessary regulatory organizations to obtain the necessary permits, etc.

This process may vary depending on the method of construction delivery (for example, design-bid-build projects versus design-build). During this process, the Architect will review with the Client what to expect.

What deliverables can you expect from the Architect and their Consultant team?

Schematic Design
Site analysis, conceptual floor plans, basic building massing and preliminary mechanical and electrical concepts.

Design Development
Document showing all design elements including structural, mechanical and electrical drawings.

Construction Documents
Documents showing all design elements including structural, mechanical and electrical drawings.

What deliverables can you expect from the Architect and the Contractor?

Schematic Design

  • The Architect provides construction and tender documents including drawings and specifications.
  • The Contractor provides a budget and cost estimate for the project. The Architect will clarify any questions from the Contractor.

Design Development

  • The Architect will review all shop drawings, assess compliance of construction with design, review progress payments and respond to questions from the Contractor.
  • In cooperation with the Architect, your Contractor will construct your project as designed.